Baku, May 30, AZERTAC
Japanese scientists were able to cure mice from amnesia, recovering with the help of light lost memories. A new study has helped to resolve a long-running dispute neuroscientists about the nature of memory: retrograde amnesia (associated with injuries and Alzheimer's disease), apparently not invoked irreparable damage to brain cells, but only by blocking access to intact memory. About their experiments, the biologists told in the pages of the journal Science.
A team of scientists headed by Nobel laureate in medicine Suzumi Tonegawa (Susumu Tonegawa) wanted to find out whether it is possible to bring back the memories, "broken" from the brain chemicals. For this they were subjected to electric shock mice placed in the cage, whereby they have developed a defensive reaction (fading). After some time, the rodents began to freeze when hit in the cage even in the absence of an unpleasant stimulus. Then part of the mice were injected with the anisomycin, inhibiting the synthesis of proteins. Thus he weakened synaptic communications and contributed amnesia.
Other mice (control group) received a harmless saline solution. As expected, when injected into the cell in mice with a memory wipe was not included defensive reaction.
Then, to determine whether the memory of the shock from the brain of experimental mice (or was blocked), scientists turned to optogenetic the excitation light of brain cells, which by means of genetic engineering gave photosensitivity.
Neuroscientists selectively activated neurons responsible for memory of an unpleasant experience — but by placing the mice in a different cell. It turned out that mice with amnesia faded, and rodents in the control group, despite the fact that he forgot about his time in the room with bass.3.*
Scientists explain this phenomenon by the fact that the creation (encoding) and retrieval of memories is controlled by different processes. During the training period (creating a memory link between cells in different parts of the brain are strengthened so that storage is not necessary in the strengthening of synaptic connections — unlike extract. Thus, there is an opportunity to regain lost as a result of injury or illness memory.
"In retrograde amnesia, the memory is not erased — just lost access to it. Our results are intended to stimulate new research on the biology of memory and its reconstruction in a clinical setting," says Tonegawa.
In 2013 scientist became famous for having introduced the experimental mice false memories. In 2014, the neurophysiologist successfully changed the emotional impact of memories on the opposite, affecting the light on the neurons of the brain.