Nearly 19 million newborns at risk of brain damage every year due to iodine deficiency

Baku, March 2, AZERTAC

Nearly 19 million babies born globally every year – 14 per cent – are at risk of permanent yet preventable brain damage and reduced cognitive function due to a lack of iodine in the earliest years of life, according to a new joint report by UNICEF and GAIN.

More than 1 in 4 of these children – 4.3 million – lives in South Asia.

Brighter futures: Protecting early brain development through salt iodization notes that iodine deficiency is a leading cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Insufficient iodine during pregnancy and infancy results in neurological and psychological deficits, reducing a child’s IQ by 8 to 10 points. This translates into major losses in the cognitive capital of entire nations and thus their socio-economic development.

“The nutrients a child receives in the earliest years of life influence their brain development for life, and can make or break their chance of a prosperous future,” said UNICEF Senior Nutrition Adviser Roland Kupka. “By protecting and supporting children’s development in early life, we are able to achieve immense results for children throughout their lifespan.”

Salt iodization is both cost effective and economically beneficial at only US $0.02–0.05 per child annually. Every dollar spent on salt iodization is estimated to return US $30 through increased future cognitive ability.

While South Asia is home to the largest proportion of babies at risk globally, the region has the second highest iodized salt coverage rate at 87 per cent of the population, preceded by East Asia and the Pacific at 91 per cent coverage. The lowest coverage with iodized salt was seen in Eastern and Southern Africa, where around 25 per cent of the population do not have access to iodized salt, leaving 3.9 million babies every year unprotected against iodine deficiency disorders.

“Iodine is critical for childhood development,” said Greg S. Garrett, Director of Food Policy at GAIN. “Due to the collective efforts of governments, industry, civil society, UNICEF, GAIN and others, we are on the verge of being able to ensure sustainable iodine intakes for all children. But there is still much more to be done to end iodine deficiency and we hope others join our efforts to further scale up salt iodization in the hardest to reach areas.”

The earliest moments of life, from conception up to age 2, are the most critical for a child’s development. Nutrition – along with protection and stimulating activities like play and early learning – during a child’s first 1,000 days shape brain development for life.

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