New part of the body found hiding in the lungs

Baku, April 6, AZERTAC

Scientists have discovered a brand-new type of cell hiding inside the delicate, branching passageways of human lungs. The newfound cells play a vital role in keeping the respiratory system functioning properly and could even inspire new treatments to reverse the effects of certain smoking-related diseases, according to a new study.

The cells, known as respiratory airway secretory (RAS) cells, are found in tiny, branching passages known as bronchioles, which are tipped with alveoli, the teensy air sacs that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with the bloodstream. The new RAS cells are similar to stem cells — "blank canvas" cells that can differentiate into any other type of cell in the body — and are capable of repairing damaged alveoli cells and transforming into new ones.

Researchers discovered the RAS cells after becoming increasingly frustrated by the limitations of relying on the lungs of mice as models for the human respiratory system. However, because of certain differences between the two, scientists have struggled to fill some knowledge gaps about human lungs. To get a better understanding of these differences on a cellular level, the team took lung tissue samples from healthy human donors and analyzed the genes within individual cells, which revealed the previously unknown RAS cells.

RAS cells serve two main functions in the lungs. First, they secrete molecules that maintain the fluid lining along bronchioles, helping to prevent the tiny airways from collapsing and maximizing the efficiency of the lungs. Second, they can act as progenitor cells for alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells, a special type of alveoli that secrete a chemical that is used in part to repair other damaged alveoli. (A progenitor cell is a cell that has the capacity to differentiate into another type of cell, similar to how stem cells differentiate into other cells.)

The researchers think RAS cells may play a key role in smoking-related diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In theory, RAS cells should prevent, or at least alleviate, the effects of COPD by repairing damaged alveoli. However, the researchers suspect that smoking can damage, or even completely destroy, the new cells, leading to the onset of diseases such as COPD. Patients who have COPD are often prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs or oxygen therapy to ease their symptoms. However, these are only temporary solutions and do nothing to reverse lung damage. RAS cells could potentially be used to improve treatments or even cure COPD, if researchers can properly harness these cells' regenerative properties.

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